Category: Insights


Rules and regulations when buying cryptocurrency

In recent years, the cryptocurrency market has grown in size and popularity in the world. Each country has different regulations for cryptocurrency. Due to the increased demand for bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, nations have to update the appropriate legal regulations day by day.

With the rapid growth of the Internet, the use of cryptocurrencies is an inevitable trend. No country can completely ban this financial type. People can do cryptocurrency transactions secretly on the Internet. It is hard for the government to track cryptocurrency users or cryptocurrency exchange.

If you invest in crypto, buy bitcoin, or are interested in this investment, you should learn about the rules and how regulations may affect you. While some cryptocurrency regulations can slow down the buying, selling, and use of cryptocurrencies, others support the growth of this new asset class. Even an announcement about crypto regulation can cause prices to rise or fall dramatically.

Here are essential rules and regulations that investors must consider before buying cryptocurrency.

What is cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency is a medium technology of financial exchange with cryptographical functions on the Internet. Cryptocurrencies use blockchain technology to achieve decentralization, transparency, and immutability.

Cryptocurrencies are not controlled or regulated by any authority. And the cryptocurrencies’ price is determined by the supply and demand of their market. It is the most significant feature of a cryptocurrency. Due to the decentralized nature of blockchain, cryptocurrency is immune to government administration.

How is the cryptocurrency transaction?

Cryptocurrencies can be deposited directly between the two parties through the use of private and public keys. This transfer can be done with minimal processing fees, allowing users to avoid the hefty fees charged by traditional financial institutions.

Cryptocurrency properties

– Irreversible: Once you’ve confirmed, a transaction cannot be reversed. If you send money, you send it. If you sent your money to a scammer or if a hacker stole them from your computer, you could not take it back. There is no safety zone.

– Permissionless: No one can stop you. No need to ask anyone to use cryptocurrencies. It is just a piece of software that anyone can download for free. Once installed, you can buy Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies. 

– Fast and global: Transactions are spread almost instantly across the network and confirmed in minutes. Since they happen in a global network of computers, they don’t care at all about your specific location.

– Virtual pseudonym: Neither the transaction nor the account is connected to the user identity in the real world.

– Security: Cryptocurrency funds are locked into a public-key cryptosystem. Only the owner of the private key can send cryptocurrency. The strong code and the magic of the big numbers make it impossible to break this scheme. A Bitcoin address is more secure than Fort Knox.

Why should you invest in cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrencies have been popular for many years. However, the majority of people are not aware of it. As a result, people don’t think about trying to invest or trade cryptocurrencies.

Of course, cryptocurrencies are risky – just like any other investment with a high potential return. However, it also offers the following obvious benefits.

You are the owner

There is no other electronic cash system where your account belongs to you.

Fraud protection

Once the cryptocurrency is created, all confirmed transactions are stored in a public ledger. All the identity of the coin’s owners is encrypted to ensure the legality of record keeping. Because money is decentralized, you own it. Neither the government nor the bank has control over it.

Identity theft

The ledger ensures that all transactions between “e-wallets” can calculate the correct balance. This public ledger is also known as the “transaction blockchain”. Blockchain technology ensures secure digital transactions through encryption and “smart contracts” that make entities virtually vulnerable to attack and free of fraud.

Instant payments

Blockchain has brought value to cryptocurrencies. Ease of use is the reason why cryptocurrencies are in high demand. All you need is a smart device, internet connection, and instantly become your bank making payments and money transfers.


More than two billion people have access to the Internet but do not have access to traditional exchange systems. These individuals are entering the cryptocurrency market.

Which cryptocurrency to invest in?

Although Bitcoin is a famous cryptocurrency, investors and users should know about other cryptocurrencies. Here we present the most popular cryptocurrencies today.


Bitcoin is the first and most famous cryptocurrency.

Bitcoin is known as the top digital standard through the entire crypto industry. Now, people use Bitcoin as a global payment. Cybercriminals also sell or buy Bitcoin in the darknet markets or ransomware. For seven years, the Bitcoin price has increased from zero to 650USD and more than 200,000 daily transactions.


Ethereum takes second place in the cryptocurrency top ranking. It is a product of Vitalik Buterin. Unlike Bitcoin, its blockchain not only can process the complicated transaction but also complex contracts and programs due to its function of validation in so-called states.


Although Ripple has a native cryptocurrency – XRP, it is more about a network that processes IOUs than the cryptocurrency itself. XRP, the currency, does not act as a vehicle for storing and exchanging value but also acts as a token to protect the network from spam.

Ripple, unlike Bitcoin and Ethereum, has no mining activity as all coins are pre-mined. Ripple has found immense value in the financial space as a lot of banks have joined the Ripple network.


This is a viable alternative to bitcoin. It was created in 2011 by Charlie Lee. After bitcoin, it ranks third in terms of time and lifetime of cryptocurrencies. Even if litecoin did not get as much attention as expected, we still have to admit that litecoin is much faster than bitcoin and that its transaction fees are almost zero.


Dash was launched in 2014 and has become one of the largest peer-to-peer networks of master nodes. Hence, Dash can provide additional storage and a secure environment for users.

Rules and regulations when buying cryptocurrency

1. Reading is the basic knowledge first

You should spend time to read what cryptocurrencies and blockchain technology is, and the different types of coins, wallets, and transactions.

Update the latest information on cryptocurrencies in trusted and reputation media channels.

By building up your knowledge, you will make decisions and take opportunities confidently.

2. Only invest what you are prepared to lose

If you are a beginner, you should start a small investment first. Buying Bitcoin or any other crypto is volatile. You can gain much, but you might lose what you have invested in too.

3. Consider carefully the type of cryptocurrency you buy

Research the crypto price. The circulating supply and the real-world will value the coin.

Large supply often dilutes the price of a coin, and if such a cheap coin has little to no practical utility, then there is no reason to assume it will magically rise in price.

Read about the coin’s background, its origins, how it fits into the larger business plan of the supplier, and how the crypto community accepted it. You have to follow the crypto-related events and hard fork updates, as these events tend to influence market trends.

4. Consider carefully where to buy crypto

You can buy cryptocurrencies from online strangers (not recommended), over-the-counter (OTC) kiosks online, at stores affiliated with Bitspark, at crypto ATMs, or on an exchange.

Wherever you buy, be sure of the seller’s credibility. You must look up recent reviews, comparison sites, and user ratings. If you are going to buy in OTC consider using escrow service, so you will not transfer money without ever getting your cryptocurrency back. If it’s an exchange, find out if it’s easy to trade into other coins, what coins they support, and what you need to do if you want to transfer your money to another wallet or revert to fiat.

Lastly, you have to understand the fees you will pay when buying or trading coins.

5. Ensure security

In the cryptocurrency market, you keep the key, and you control the coin.

Do not store your keys in a wallet that isn’t entirely yours. 

Buying cryptocurrencies from a centralized exchange and some OTC, usually means your money is not under your control. If an exchange gets hacked, you lose money.

If you have more than $500 in cryptocurrency make sure you buy a hardware wallet like a Trezor or Ledger and get in the habit of storing a large portion of your money in an ‘offline’ device. This way will keep your money safe from hackers.

In addition to security considerations, when handling your cryptocurrency and transferring it to another wallet, double-check the address you’re sending. Transferring money to the wrong account means it’s very hard to get it back.

6. Remember to buy low, sell high

As you increase your knowledge of cryptocurrencies, you will value coins by themselves by their value and read the market depending on your understanding. While buying when the price is low and selling when it is high seems sensible, it is really about distinguishing the hype from solid trends and seeing the whole picture.

Instead of chasing the market trend, you should anticipate or wait until the hype passed before buying: work on vision, instead of emotion.

7. Do not overtrade

Instead of choosing between buying and selling regularly or holding a currency for an extended period, you should find an intermediary path and dedicate part of your investment to well-established currencies. 

However, you should not “over-trade” constantly switching to other currencies due to worries about low trading volumes. When trading, be sure you will place orders with enough liquidity. Don’t forget that the transaction fees to recover the losses.

In conclusion

As with any other highly profitable investment, cryptocurrencies carry a specific risk – but they are even more offset by its independence and high profitability.

Investing in cryptocurrency is similar to exchanging your money in a new country. Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ether are a few examples of “forex” that operate in a very specific context in certain online communities.

Just remember that exchanging any currency is built on shared trust.

We hope the basic information provided above can help you understand the rules and regulations when buying cryptocurrency.


Prepare Your Car for Winter Driving and Stormy Weather with these Vehicle Maintenance Tips

Cars we’re driving today are the safest they’ve ever been. Not only are they more reliable, but they come with a bunch of electronic systems that are silently aiding you as you drive. Even so, it’s still a good idea to prepare your car for winter

This process might seem overwhelming, especially to those who don’t have a hands-on relationship with their cars. In reality, preparing the car for winter is easy! Here’s everything you need to do. 

Check your Coolant 

If there was only one thing you could check before the cold weather sets in, it should be your engine coolant. As the weather gets colder, your engine will have to work harder to get up to optimal working temperature. The type of coolant you have in your car, age, and level are all essential in preventing ice formation within the engine itself. You know what happens to pipes in your home if they’re exposed to freezing temperatures. The same can happen to an engine. 

Long-life coolants exist and are often presented as the be-all, end-all solution that you can use and forget about. However, every coolant slowly loses its properties. Over time, its boiling point slowly starts to drop while its freezing points begin to creep up. 

It is highly recommended that you change your coolant every two years. Make it a part of your regular maintenance and only use coolants recommended by your car’s manufacturer.

Inspect your Brakes

Having brakes in good working order is imperative if you plan on doing any serious winter commuting. Check your pads, your rotors, and don’t forget to check the fluid. Change the fluid every two years. 

Brake fluid is hygroscopic, meaning that it is continuously attracting moisture. After two years of use, the fluid is contaminated with enough water to significantly reduce its boiling temperature. In other words, you’re risking losing your brakes on a steep downhill. Tips like these are important to internalize as they directly impact your safety and the safety of your passengers.

Tires – Going with a Winter Set will Change your Driving Experience 

You’ll often hear car enthusiasts ramble on how suspension impacts handling and how this or that set of shock absorbers can make a difference. While they are correct, none of that matters if you don’t have a good set of tires on your vehicle, especially during the winter. Just like a house needs a good foundation, your car needs the right tires.

Check your DOT and see how old your tires are. Tires should be changed once they’re six years old, even if the tread is decent. The compounds used to make tires will eventually start to crack and potentially even rot. Worn out, old tires are a safety risk you shouldn’t ignore.

Why Winter Tires?

There’s more to tires, though. As temperatures begin to drop, the rubber compound used to make the tire starts to harden. This is why we have winter and summer tires. The whole idea behind winter tires is to use a much softer compound that won’t go stiff when temperatures hit below zero. A softer tire equals more grip on icy roads. 

All-season tires are somewhere between winter and summer tires. They are generally not all that great for either of the two seasons, but they do a sufficiently good job. If you’re looking to get the best possible performance out of your vehicle during the winter, you should have a dedicated winter set of tires

Check the Battery 

Car batteries are another essential piece of the puzzle we call cars that often tend to go belly up in the winter. All batteries, including the one in your phone, will experience a drop in performance when temperatures hit below zero. That’s just how they work. 

When your phone experiences a drop in performance, you’ll just have to charge it sooner. With car batteries, you might have issues starting your car. 

Check the battery even if it seems to be working just fine right now. The best way to do this is to go to any auto parts store or car mechanic worth their salt. These places will have a specialized tool that measures the current state of the battery, how many cranking mAh it offers, and more. 

Windshield Wipers 

Being able to see the road and other vehicles on the road is imperative during the winter. The only way you can achieve that is by having a proper set of windshield wipers. Our friends over at have an excellent write-up on why wiper blades matter and which brands to look for. 

Wiper blades, just like any other type of rubber, goes stiff over time. Endless heat and cold cycles will make them lose the ability to wipe rain and snow off the windshield. The best thing you can do right now is switch to modern silicone wiper blades.

Brands such as Valeo and others offer a whole range of new blades that will deliver a clean windshield even in the worst of conditions. A good set of wipers will allow you to see more of the road as well as any obstacles you might encounter. 

Windshield Fluid 

Many people don’t know that there are summer and winter types of windshield fluids. The difference between them is in the content. Winter type is loaded with additives and chemicals that remain liquid even at -5 F or colder. If you live in an area that sees many sub-zero days, winter fluid is a must. 

The consequences of using the wrong kind of liquid range from an extremely dirty windshield to broker fluid reservoir and potentially broken nozzles. Using winter fluid rated for cold temperatures is much cheaper than having to deal with any of those repairs. 

In-Car Equipment Tips According to Survival Experts 

Once you’ve checked all of the above, it’s time to look inside the car. Depending on where you live, it could be a good idea to carry an emergency kit with you. People who live in remote areas up north should have the following in their cars: 

  • One or more candles 
  • Water 
  • Spare cold weather clothing and/or a heavy blanket 
  • Small, folding entrenching tool 
  • Road flares 
  • Emergency food (optional) 

Most of these tools and items are essential if you break down in a remote area. When help is hours away, exposure becomes a real safety risk. If you think it can’t happen to you, recount how many blizzards and reports of snowed-in cars have you heard of last year alone? 

A simple candle can increase the temperature in your car by several degrees. That extra bit of heat could be a real lifesaver! The rest of the items are self-explanatory. You’ve got tools that are designed to help you get unstuck, be seen in a snowstorm, stay warm and hydrated. 

Keeping food in the car is a no-no for many drivers, but there are emergency rations that virtually can’t be spilled while you’re driving. Toss a pack of emergency rations in your trunk and forget about it. Best case scenario, you’ve wasted a few bucks. Worst case scenario, you’ve got critical nourishment available in your car. 

Be Prepared 

Road safety is all about being prepared. Checking everything we’ve listed above is a surefire way of exercising safety and arriving at your destination. That being said, always keep your vehicles well maintained, no matter what season of the year. 

A well-maintained car is a safe car. Driving in the winter isn’t difficult, but it brings on several risks. By preparing your vehicle for winter using the tips mentioned in this guide, you’re ensuring that your driving skills are enough to get you out of whatever tricky situation you might find yourself in. 


Content Marketing Process: How to Do It Right and Improve Content Results

It would be tough to succeed with content marketing without a process to guide you.

You can have original, interesting, and engaging content on your site, but if no one but your content team knows about it, it will not help you achieve your goals.


To effectively answer this question, ask yourself:

Why do you spend time writing content?

If you are like most marketers, you write content to get it in front of your target audience. You want them to read, engage, share, and, most importantly, act on your calls-to-action.

Now, if your target audience never sees this content, what good does it offer your business?

For this reason, you need to start thinking about your content marketing process, and how it can help you strategize, create, distribute, promote, and track content performance.

But what is a content marketing process?

It’s an organized plan that enables you to ensure every piece of content you produce drives positive results.

Best of all, this plan has distinct and important stages that help you create engaging content, publish it on channels your audience visits, and promote it effectively.  

And what’s more?

You can track the results of your process and refresh each stage for relevance and effectiveness.

But how can you create this process?

Can you ensure it effectively boosts engagement while delivering positive returns on your investment?

You can if you use the detailed guide in the infographic below. Check it out for information on the five crucial stages of a content marketing process and effective tactics to apply during each.

5 of the Most Important Stages in the Content Marketing Process
Image Courtesy:

Author Bio:

Shane Barker is a digital marketing consultant who specializes in influencer marketing, content marketing, and SEO. He is the co-founder of Attrock, a digital marketing agency. He has consulted with Fortune 500 companies, influencers with digital products, and a number of A-List celebrities.

Twitter, LinkedIn & Instagram


What’s the best way of promoting a WordPress blog?

Today, websites and blogs have become the face of your brand. In this digital & tech savvy world people prefer to create the WordPress blog to develop their brand image. Only providing the correct information through your blog is not the end. You need to take care of the fact that your blog has reached the right place and to the right person. You need to be serious about your promotion while promoting a WordPress blog.    

To drive the traffic in your blog you need to do proper marketing of it. You need to build awareness regarding your blog site. The more you spread your brand message the better will be your brand promotional activity. Using some effective marketing techniques, you can spread your brand message very easily. You need to optimize your blog post so that you can get a better response from your target audience. 

Different Ways of Promoting a WordPress Blog    

Several ways are there using which you can easily promote your WordPress blog. Therefore, let’s explore the ways that you can employ to promote the WordPress blog one after the other to get a better insight into it.     

1.Create an Engaging Content 

You need to ensure that you maintain the quality of your content in an engaging way. You need to ensure one thing that you have the right experience in the same niche. Your blog post must solve the problem of the readers and provide them with the right solution for which they are craving for. You need to ensure one thing regarding your blog is it must fulfil the requirements of your target audience. You must provide them the most desired content that they are searching for in your website.  

2.Install the Most Suitable Theme      

The overall look of your blog can create an impact in the minds of your target audience. The visibility of your blog site can make or break the image of your brand. Web design can create the first and the last impression in the minds of your target audience. The theme of your blog must reflect your brand message. The theme must match with your industry category that you are dealing with. It must make sense to your investment. You must search for the themes that should showcase your brand in a better manner.     

3.Social Media Marketing    

On different social media platforms, you need to market your blog post like Facebook, twitter, LinkedIn and StumbleUpon in order to drive more traffic to your website. On your relevant groups you need to share your post and blogs on a daily basis. You need to set up your Facebook page where you need to add all your targeted visitors. You need to share your links and posts on your Facebook profile. On your blog posts you can share your icons to develop your brand image so that the brand promotion becomes easy for you.       

4.Customize the Permalinks    

You can optimize your content when the URL of your blog post remains relevant along with the keywords. Automatically WordPress can generate the permalink and before you hit the publish button make sure that the keyword reach is readable. This will help you to develop the perfect blog post for your brand. The blog post will enable you to develop the perfect content that you may require to make sure all your business needs are served well as per your expectations. You are investing your money in your blog site and the permalinks can help you to develop your search results on various search engines.     

5.Use Guest Posting   

Guest posting is a way to write articles and blogs to some other website and drive traffic to your website by making fruitful link building. It can promote your blog to multiple platforms in order to boost the presence of your blog. It will help you to create a large population base of your blog online. Just you need to drive more traffic in a short span of time. It will help you to develop your search result as it will increase the traffic on your website in a small span of time and your search results will also become higher. 

6.Create A Search Optimized Blog Post    

You need to rank higher on Google, Yahoo and on other search engines. It can be done successfully by optimizing your titles and the descriptions of your blog posts. Proper placing of the keywords in the right place can help you to optimize your brand value in a better manner. A Searchable blog post can provide you a rewarding career that can help you to build your brand image in a better manner in a short span of time. Hence, you can promote a WordPress blog in a better manner.   

7.Make Use of YouTube Videos    

You need to make use of your YouTube Videos to develop your brand image if you are a solopreneur. Hence, you can develop an audio-visual message to promote your brand image. Better to say you can use this platform of YouTube to create a brand value in a better manner. Hence, you can easily share your brand message to your target consumer in a small span of time. Hence, True to play in with your options that you get while promoting your WordPress blog online in a better manner. 


Hence, from the above information, it is clear that if you want to promote a WordPress blog then you need to think creatively and out of the box. If you want more information related to this then you can visit the official website of site 123 reviews in a better manner. Therefore, if you want to promote your brand in a better manner then you can easily develop a WordPress blog site to increase the visitor and traffic for your website in a better manner. Just you need to build upon your concept in a better manner. In this regard, you need to make sure that your WordPress site is engaging enough to grab the maximum attention of your target audience. 

Author Bio:
Mashum Mollah is a tech entrepreneur by profession and passionate blogger by heart. He is on a mission to help small businesses grow online. He shares his journey, insights, and experiences at If you are an entrepreneur, digital marketing professional, or simply an info-holic, then this blog is for you. Follow him on Instagram & LinkedIn


Tips for Improving the Operation of Your Small Business

As a small business owner, you have to account for every cent you spend and make the most of your time. The good news is there are new technologies that can reduce your overhead and allow you to focus more of your time on growing the business. 

Your Online Company

Today, it’s common to have a small business online. However, many small companies still need a warehouse or storage facility to house their inventory and pack and ship their products. Thankfully, you can eliminate the cost of having additional space and eliminate the expense and stress of shipping packages by investing in fulfillment services.  

Use of Mobile Apps

Mobile apps are the norm. You use them multiple times each day to do things like purchase gas, order dinner, and check the weather. Having a mobile app for your business will boost branding with a continued presence. It will also help improve the customer experience with 24/7 access to your business services and products resulting in additional income. 

Social Media Platforms

While social media isn’t really new, many small businesses are just now beginning to realize its benefits. Unlike expensive ads on the radio or television, social media puts you in touch with millions of potential customers for a nominal fee. Figure out your target audience and then reserve a time slot that allows your ad to pop up at the best possible time of day. 

Processing Payments

Not too long ago you had limited payment options as a small business owner. Unfortunately, this will more than likely cost you sales. Having a credit card terminal that accepts all types of cards is essential. If your business is mainly online, make sure to include PayPal and 

A Strong Website

Having a website is nothing new. In fact, most businesses large and small have one. However, the difference between a website that produces sales and one that doesn’t is the content. People want to know a bit about your company, and they want to be able to move from one place to another with ease. Keeping them on your site longer is critical. Having new technologies such as a Chatbot that comes up to see if a customer needs help or an animated whiteboard that describes your services/products. 

CRM Software

As a small business owner, you want to develop a personal relationship with your customer to achieve loyalty. CRM software lets you best manage contact information and track the interests of your customers to increase sales while building a relationship. A higher rate of customer satisfaction leads to additional sales. 

Outsourcing Services

Small business owners need to keep the focus on marketing. Unfortunately, having to handle things like payroll, IT management, customer service and various administrative tasks will consume valuable time. Thankfully, you can outsource all of the above within your tight budget.

Automation Programs

Quickbooks and Sites such as SalesForce allow for automated monitoring of sales, inventory and overall bookkeeping. It also decreases the margin of human error while creating efficiency. Utilizing these technologies frees up your time and that of your employees, allowing for an increased amount of time dedicated to other important matters. 

Secure Data

Keeping a good reputation among your customers is essential in maintaining a competitive edge. Using cloud storage or virtual vaults will limit access to customer and business information and the ability to alter existing documents.

Small business owners must continue to find new ways to remain out in front. The good news is that by adopting newer technologies you can retain existing customers and attract new ones to help you achieve your long-term goals. 


Understanding the Difference Between Numerical and Structural Chromosome Abnormalities

Each cell in your body contains around 20,000 genes. Your genes are located on chromosomes which are long DNA molecules that contain genetic material. Normal human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes in all. 

If one or several pairs of chromosomes have an abnormality, it can increase your risk of having a child with a birth defect or congenital condition. There are many types of chromosome abnormalities, but the two most common are numerical and structural abnormalities.

How are chromosome abnormalities detected?

X and Y chromosomes. Genetics concept. 3D rendered illustration.

Chromosome abnormalities can be identified through non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). NIPT takes a sample of your blood and analyzes it for genetic information that enters your bloodstream through your growing baby’s placenta. 

NIPT can detect several types of chromosomal abnormalities, including Down syndrome and sex chromosome aneuploidies. It can also determine the gender of your baby. 

What is a numerical chromosome abnormality?

Numerical chromosome abnormalities occur when an individual is missing chromosomes or has extra chromosomes. If you’re missing one chromosome from a pair, it’s called monosomy. If you have more than two chromosomes, it’s called trisomy.

Some of the most common numerical chromosome abnormalities include Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and Trisomy 18 (Edward’s syndrome). 

What is a structural chromosome abnormality?

Structural chromosome abnormalities occur when the shape of a chromosome is altered. There are several types of structural abnormalities, including:

  • Deletions. Deletions occur due to a loss of genetic material and vary in severity. Some involve a single missing base pair; others involve a missing piece of the chromosome itself. 
  • Inversions. Inversions occur when a particular segment of a chromosome breaks, turns around, and reattaches to itself. There are two types of inversions: pericentric and paracentric. Parents can pass on inversions to their offspring, but they don’t always result in birth defects.
  • Rings. Rings occur when both ends of a chromosome bend and fuse together, forming a circle. Sometimes rings result in a loss of genetic material, in other instances they do not. Parents can pass on rings to their offspring, but they may or may not cause health problems.

What causes chromosome abnormalities?

The most common cause of chromosome abnormalities is an error in cell division. Cell division occurs in two distinct ways:

  • Mitosis. Mitosis creates two cells that are duplicates of an original cell. So, one cell with 46 chromosomes evolves into two cells with 46 chromosomes.
  • Meiosis. Meiosis affects cells that occur in your reproductive organs. It creates cells with 23 chromosomes. Meiosis is responsible for the creation of eggs and sperm.

Normal cell division results in cells with the correct number of chromosomes. When errors occur, cells form with too many or too few chromosomes.

Other factors can contribute to chromosome abnormalities as well, including maternal age and environment. For example, older women are more likely to give birth to babies with chromosome abnormalities than younger women.  

With noninvasive prenatal testing, you can better determine whether you are at risk of passing chromosomal abnormalities on to your baby. Once you receive the results of NIPT, your general practitioner, OB/GYN, or a genetic counselor can explain the results in detail.


6 Pro Tips to Master your Mac


The past decade has seen Apple rise from just another tech company to one of the largest tech corporations ever. Past innovations (such as the iPhone) helped bring Apple up, and since then, Apple’s devices have permeated society, with iPhones found everywhere.

But what about Macs? While Macs suffer from heavy competition from Windows, they’re still a great option, especially for people in creative industries. But Macs aren’t perfect out of the box. Fortunately, users can improve their Mac experience and learn how to get the most out of their Macs. 

6 Tips for Mac Users

Listed below are 6 ways you can get the most out of your Mac. All of these are extremely easy to do, and while a couple requires you to shell out some money, it’s 100% worth it!

1. Use Spotlight to Quickly Convert Units and Currencies

Converting currency quickly becomes a headache, especially if you’re doing it often. And while you could use online programs to convert currencies quicker, you could also use macOS’s built-in Spotlight.

Spotlight’s main use is to search through a Mac’s files, but it can also be used to convert currencies, measurements, and other units. Just type in the unit or currency you wish to convert on Spotlight.

2. Use Mail to Directly Sign PDFs

Despite living in the age of the Internet, many still require physical signatures for contracts. But what if you could use your signature digitally, sign contracts through PDF?

Well, you can!

Mac’s Mail app allows users to sign PDFs through email, making it much easier to finalize agreements without requiring an external program or physical signature,

3. Download a VPN for Security

Some people believe Macs are immune to viruses and malware—this is not true. Macs are just as at risk as Windows machines, meaning users need to protect their Macs. One way to do so is by downloading a VPN on your Mac.

A VPN encrypts your data and hides its IP address, meaning cybercriminals can’t steal your data even while you are on a public network or an unsecured website.

4. Activate Split Screen to Improve Efficiency

Managing multiple windows and tabs is taxing, especially on smaller Macs. Seriously, who wants to deal with 5 windows on a 12” inch screen?

Fortunately, current versions of macOS contain Split Screen for apps, the ability to display multiple windows side-by-side. This makes it easier for users to access other windows and can help keep things organized.

5. Send and View Texts on Your Mac (if You Have an iPhone)

The good thing about Apple’s ecosystem is that each device works with other devices. For example, if you have an iPhone, your iPad can receive the same texts and messages. Oh, and so can your Mac.

With an iPhone, your Mac becomes more than a laptop—it becomes a secondary phone. You can use your Mac to text others, make calls, and even play games! 

6. Take Advantage of iCloud

Macs come with different storage options, with 128GB being the cheapest. Paying for extra—cashing out an extra $100 or so—can be intimidating. But do you even need more storage?

If you’re only working with documents and the occasional video, you may be able to get by with 128GB and iCloud, Apple’s cloud storage service. Users get 5GB free but can pay .99 cents a month for an extra 50GB.


Signal Conditioning: How Does it Improve Health and Safety?

To get an analog signal into a computer system, we need to send it through an analogue-to-digital converter. This device will turn it into a stream of digital pulses that our computers can understand. But before this can happen, an intermediary stage of processing must be taken place. Small-voltage signals must be amplified to the appropriate level. Interference must be removed, and faulty circuits must be grounded to protect the rest of the system.

This intermediary stage is called signal conditioning. Incoming signals are processed so that they can be put to better use by the stages that follow. Thus, signal conditioners are crucial pieces of hardware, and for good reason ever-present in the industrial controls sold by Allied Electronics. But they’re also used on a smaller scale in smaller devices.

How Does Signal Conditioning Work?

Signal conditioners come in a range of different types. Let’s take a look at a few of them.


Getting rid of unwanted AC frequencies is essential in many applications. You might have heard the hum that comes when a 50Hz power line is inadequately filtered and put through an audio system. In other cases, a signal might need to be ‘cleaned up’ by removing high-frequency noise.

Level Control

Getting the voltage to a level appropriate to the ADC is critical. Signals can be either amplified (that is, turned up) or attenuated (turned down). In the former case, this is done to decrease the amount of noise that might creep in between the signal conditioner and the ADC and to ensure the maximum possible resolution on the signal being sampled. Attenuation ensures that the voltage does not go beyond the maximum on the ADC, which would result in clipping.


In some cases, the signal coming in might be nonlinear. In an exponential signal, massive change might occur in just a few digital ticks. Converting it into a linear signal allows the ADC to record smoother and more useful data.

Electrical Isolation

In some cases, it might be necessary to protect potentially sensitive equipment by isolating one part of the circuit from another. Magnetic couplers work by turning an incoming voltage into a magnetic field and back again, optical couplers do this turning the signal into a beam of light. This process ensures that any problem in one part of the system won’t cause damage to the rest of it. This doesn’t just protect equipment, but the people using it, too.


Best Practices in Performance Development Planning and Training

The advent of the Covid-era has led to a significant change in emphasis from in-person training to internet-based online training. However, managers need to be cognizant of the fact that not everyone is suited to purely online methodologies for training. Individuals have a preferred learning style and online classrooms are not everyone’s favorite approach.

At the same time, employees have to accept the reality of the current circumstances and many will simply have to adapt accordingly. Performance development is a critical aspect of an employee’s progress within the organization and it cannot be put on hold beyond the medium term.

In the past employers have usually tried to identify an individual’s preferred learning style and adapt their training accordingly to achieve the best results. Classroom-style in person courses were available for those that preferred this approach while online learning was often a second choice. Many organizations also included other training methodologies such as individuals in specific impact projects so that they could learn “on the job” and build their skills accordingly. Coaching and mentoring were similar approaches that delivered new skills outside of a classroom-type environment.

These latter two approaches to performance development training are still viable under the new social distancing environment produced by Covid. Employees can still be engaged in unique high impact projects, albeit remotely. Although the remote aspect may reduce the overall learning from working on the project it should still expose the employee to the key learnings that they need to understand the particular topic from the project.

Similarly, although it is certainly more difficult to provide coaching and mentoring under social distancing conditions, it is certainly not impossible and these approaches will still deliver value. The traditional approach to coaching and mentoring may need to be adapted, but the general concept remains valid.

Performance development planning is particularly important for the most ambitious employees in an organization, and these employees are also likely to be some of the most valuable. Therefore it is important that their development and training is not forgotten in the Covid crisis. These employees need to clearly understand what new skills and competencies they must develop in order to advance within the organization if they are to stay motivated and continue to contribute to the overall high performance of the organization. 

Clear performance development planning helps employees to understand their overall place in the company and also increases their loyalty and motivation. It draws a connecting line between their personal goals and the overall goals of the company, which makes it a key element of personal motivation. By providing this context for their work, an organization provides more meaning for the employees in their daily jobs.

One final point: performance development plans need to be individualized for every employee. Managers need to have undergone formal performance management training that enables them to discover the most important aspects of personalization for a performance development plan. For example, managers need to understand the personal goals of the employees that they manage and need to help them to develop performance management plans that align the individual’s personal goals with those of the organization.


How Small Businesses Use Mobile Apps

Mobile phones are everywhere, which has made staying in touch easier and has simplified many daily tasks. As technology grows, our lives become richer. Through filters, we are better photographers (and models). With voice assistants, we all have our very own robot secretary. Just about any fact-related argument can be settled anywhere by opening the encyclopedia, we carry around in our pockets. We don’t need a notepad and pen as long as we have our phone. For modest monthly fees, we can access vast libraries of music, movies, and television shows.

Mobile technology is great for our personal lives, but it’s great for our business lives, too, as you’ll see below. 

Time Saving Apps

One of the greatest conveniences of mobile app technology is saving time. To see what we mean, just look at how apps have changed something as ubiquitous as banking. Whereas a business owner (or manager) once had to drive to the bank with an uncomfortably large amount of cash and wait in line for the business teller, the majority of payments are now handled electronically. Checks can be deposited by snapping a photo. Mobile banking apps can save bundles of time.

It doesn’t stop with banking. If you travel for business, there are apps to help you manage business flights, hotel reservations, car rentals, taxis, rideshare services, and dinner reservations. Business travel, like personal travel, is made easier through review apps like Tripadvisor.

Metrics-at-a-Glance Apps

Whether you’re in the back of rideshare, flying in a plane, or waking up in the morning, you can now pull up a snapshot view of a variety of business metrics thanks to mobile app technology. You can most likely monitor your website analytics software, access your CRM, and whip up sales reports with a mobile app. 

Physical Plant Management Apps

Many security alarm companies now offer mobile apps so that you can wait until you’re out of the building to set the alarm. If you have security cameras, chances are you can access live (and stored) footage from an app. There are apps to manage smart thermostats and apps to turn the lights on and off. 

Office Equipment Apps

Modern office equipment, such as printers and copiers, often comes with a bundled app. For example, Xerox commercial printers can be managed with the Mobile Link app. You can use your phone’s built-in camera to scan documents, manipulate PDFS, and send just about anything you want to the printer.

Cloud Storage Apps

If you use Dropbox, Google Drive, or another cloud storage platform to access electronic apps, you can download a mobile app to help you access and manage those files. This is especially convenient when you want to send a file with your mobile email app.

Social Media Apps

We typically think of social media apps as something for personal use, but you can just as easily manage your business accounts with a mobile device. It’s a good idea to always double-check which account you’re posting to; it can be amusing to accidentally post something for work to your personal account, but the reverse can be damaging. Facebook offers a separate app to manage business pages, but with Instagram, you simply switch between accounts in the same app.

Communication Apps

Typically we think of office communication platforms like phone, fax, and email. Due to the coronavirus pandemic, however, many business owners have discovered other useful technologies. Teams can–and do–hold video chat meetings with Zoom, Skype, and Google Hangouts, helping to eliminate the need for physical contact. Many office suites provide real-time collaboration features, improving productivity, and further eliminating the need for a physical office.